In the sixteenth century, a schism in the Western
church established a new group called Protestants, who were protesting against a number of
corruptions in the Catholic Church including the
selling of salvation and an emphasis on works
instead of grace for salvation. However, many of
this newly formed movement soon began to make
some of the same mistakes the Church of Rome
had, not least their tendency to persecute
nonconformists and in some cases to merge church
As the tension between the Protestants and
the Church of Rome intensified, so did the desire
for a third way among dissenting groups. Soon a
new group emerged, though in some senses it was
also an old group—one that felt it could trace its 3
origins all the way back to the New Testament.
Known collectively as the Radical Reformation,
these persecuted groups often advocated a
nonviolent ethic, the separation of church and state, and a desire for both personal and corporate
holiness. The ideas of these radicals spread through Europe, and over the years the Amish, Mennonites
and Anabaptists, and to a lesser degree the
Covenanters and Quakers, emerged or were
influenced by this movement.
Europe as a whole was split on religious
grounds for centuries, and Scotland was no
exception. The Catholic Stewarts had ruled the land since 1371. After the death of Elizabeth I of
England in 1603, her cousin, James VI of Scotland, also became James I of England. However, in 1688
his grandson James II was deposed by William of
Orange, who advocated Protestantism. In the years
that followed, Jacobites, those loyal to the Stewarts, tried to put them back on the throne.
Several uprisings ensued, and after the
uprising of 1715, Inverness Castle was made into a garrison and renamed Fort George. It was an
attempt by the government to subdue the
Highlanders, many of whom chose loyalty to the
Stewarts. The conflict was not as simple as Scotland against England or Protestant against Catholic.
Many joined the Jacobite cause after the Union of
1707, and others sent one son to each side of the
final battle in order to protect themselves. Inverness Castle was finally levelled by the Jacobites just
before the Battle of Culloden.
The final uprising was led by Charles
Edward Stewart (“Bonnie Prince Charlie”). He had
been born in Rome and was son to the exiled James
Stewart (“the Old Pretender”). In 1744 at the age of 5
twenty-three he began his attempts to restore his
father’s throne. He managed to initially raise ten thousand loyal men, leading to a bounty being put
on his head of thirty thousand pounds. The final
uprising ended in Culloden on April 16, 1746. Fifty government “redcoats” were killed and two-hundred-sixty wounded. There was no one to count
the dead for the Jacobites, but facing heavy artillery and an organised army, theirs was a shattering
defeat. Charlie fled to the Isle of Skye dressed as a woman with the help of the legendary Flora
MacDonald and finally fled to France. He never
returned. The cause was lost and forever became
part of Scottish history and legend.
You may not see me, but I am near.
Travel through time.
Travel through space.
Travel through eternity.
Some have entertained me, but were not aware.
The infants, ill, and dying see me most, as I bless them with the heavenly hosts.
You are not alone, we are around you, just as we stand before his throne.
I repeat, you are not alone.
Messengers of love and truth walk among mortal men.
You are not alone as we guide you home.
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